Action of cannabidiol (CBD)
The cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid of the inflorescence of the Cannabis plant, which has proved very effective in treating several physical and psychic problems.
First of all it has analgesic effects and is an excellent anxiolytic and antidepressant. Other its abilities are to reduce nausea and vomiting, convulsive activity, nervous disorders, inflammatory states, neurodegenerative diseases and is able to modulate the action of THC prolonging its therapeutic effects (such as analgesic action) and limiting side effects (reduces adverse effects on heartbeat, breathing and body temperature, anxiety and occasional paranoid manifestations caused by the psychoactive cannabinoid).
CBD is not present in the plant as such but in its acid form: CBDA.
Under the effect of heat (natural or by extraction) the acid part is transformed into its neutral cannabinoid by a process called decarboxylation.
Action of the cannabidiol
CBD is an agonist of GPR55 cannabinoid receptors, TRPV1 and TRPV2 vanilloids and 5-ht1a serotonin. It is an antagonist of opioid neurotransmitters and cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. It does not bind to CB1 receptors in the central nervous system and acts on several neuronal channels compared to THC. For these reasons it is not psychoactive and does not alter the perceptive, psychological and psychomotor functions. Anecdotal and clinical studies have shown analgesic, sedative, antipsychotic, antiepileptic, antidistonic, anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant effects. It is able to reduce intraocular pressure and has demonstrated antioxidant activity.
The clinical results obtained so far as antispasmodic and anxiolytic are very promising.
Cannabidiol acts effectively against the process of degradation of neurotransmitters, such as anandamide, predisposed to stimulate contrasting responses to pain perception.
Anandamide is a substance produced by the body to bind to its own endogenous receptors, so it is a neurotransmitter. It is produced within cell membranes, at the time of need (to slow down the formation of degenerative cells, promote neurogenesis and to manage pain perception) and interacts with endogenous receptors located in the brain, central and peripheral nervous system.
After completion of its biological action the anandamide undergoes a rapid degradation process. The enzyme that inactivates the function of the. anandamide is the FAAH (hydrolase starch of fatty acids).
And here the CBD of the hemp plant can have its positive effects: it is able to inhibit the action of FAAH, prolonging the stimulus of the body’s response to pain with analgesic effect.
It is important that the extraction takes place as naturally as possible, as the extraction of carbon dioxide sub or super critical to leave no alcohol residues or synthesis within the products based on cannabinoids.
In some countries it is included in the lists of orphan drugs for particular diseases. In the light of recent scientific research, geneticists have begun to select cannabis varieties with high CBD content.
CBD-treatable diseases based on research results:
Pharmaceutical properties Effects
Antiemetic Reduces nausea and vomiting
Anticonvulsant reduces or eliminates convulsive activity
Antipsychotic counteracts psychic disorders
Anti-inflammatory reduces or eliminates inflammation
Antioxidant Combats neurodegenerative actions
Suppresses or reduces tumour cell proliferation
Anxiolytic and antidepressant relieves symptoms of anxiety and depression
Technical data sheet
Decarboxation point: 120°C
Solubility: poor in water, good in organic solvents
Melting point: 66°C
Boiling point: 160-180°C
Lethal dose: inhalation 5,000mg/kg for mice. 15,000 mg/kg for man. Nicotine lethal dose: 3mg/kg for mice, 40-60 mg/kg for man.
Bioavailability: 13-19% orally, 11-45% by inhalation
–“Hemp as medicine”, franjo grotenhermen, Renate Huppertz
– “Cannabis therapeutic, an unknown world: pharmacological properties, use and prescriptions” Dr. Cristina amodeo
– “Medical Grass” Cannabis Therapeutic Association, Marcello Baraghini editorial director of alternative press.