CBD: The cannabinoid
We all know that marijuana contains the cannabinoid THC or delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol, since we have been told that this is what makes us angry and makes us experience its incredible effects.
As growers, we grow cannabis to achieve the effect it creates when consumed and we usually desire to obtain strains with as much THC content as possible. With all the knowledge we are gaining from the marijuana plant tests, we now know that cannabis contains approximately 85 cannabinoids, so it seems incredible that you are only familiar with one of them.
In today's world, the culture of cannabis is growing rapidly. It begins to conduct cutting-edge scientific tests around the world, and we are learning that there are many other things to discover in terms of the content of this magical plant. One of the major discoveries of modern research was the second cannabinoid with the greatest concentration: Cannabidiol, abbreviated CBD. THC and CBD are naturally occurring cannabinoids in greater concentration: THC constitutes 12-25% and CBD> 1-4% on average. If only a quarter of what the researchers say about the CBD were true, this medical discovery could have a substantial impact on modern natural medicine, comparable to the discovery of antibiotics.
The CBD is like a brother or sister of the THC, because like all the brothers sometimes you work symbiotically and others fight or compensate each other. Unlike Cannabidiol, THC is a psychoactive compound (which means that it affects brain function by acting at the level of the central nervous system, which results in an alteration of mood, behaviour, perception and cognitive functions) and its effects are those that feel most those who smoke cannabis. Among the effects there is a sense of relaxation, increased sensitivity and of course the inevitable hunger that leads us to want a lot of snacks. It also has an officinal utilization in a series of symptoms, including mild to moderate pain, insomnia, depression, nausea and loss of appetite, just to name a few. For some, however, THC can be a source of anxiety and paranoia, often in relation to the feeling of slowing down of time, which naturally does not correspond to reality.
CBD is considered a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, although it may appear to have some psychoactive effects. It has a sedative effect and because it relieves various pains and symptoms, most of those who use it are looking for it. Its medicinal uses exceed those of any other known cannabinoid, including: the reduction or prevention of inflammation and nausea, diabetes, alcoholism, PTSD, schizophrenia, rheumatoid arthritis, epilepsy, cardiovascular disease, antipsychotic, anxiolytic and painkiller for muscle spasms or neuropathic pain, traditionally more difficult to treat with any medical or pharmaceutical remedy.
If the THC and CBD cannabinoids have many beneficial properties when taken singly, when used together, since they are derived from the marijuana plant, their effects are far more surprising. When acting with THC molecules, CBD can soothe some of the THC-related anxiety and alleviate various types of pain that THC cannot soothe. This makes nature the best doctor if we consider that the two are united in the same plant, because they are much more effective if given together, especially for those with multiple symptoms. CBD also seems to be an antagonist of the exciting effects of THC, as it delays the onset of the effect and makes it last for up to twice the time. Some of us call it 'creeping', because it seems that there is no effect after having consumed it, but then suddenly... BOOM ... comes from where you do not expect and hits you like a ton of bricks. Although marijuana has different effects on people, you have probably experienced these antagonistic effects.
Mammals, birds, reptiles and fish all have endocannabinoid compounds produced by their organisms, which are made up of a "natural" THC called anandamide. Technically, anandamide (Ananda = inner bliss in Sanskrit + amide = chemical type) is a naturally composed neurotransmitter that circulates in our body. Both THC and anandamide act through the cannabinoid receptors placed on the cells of our body and have a similar effect on pain, appetite and memory. Receptors are simply surveillance proteins found in cells that direct chemical signals from outside molecules to cells, telling them what to do, as a sort of air controller of our cells, but these communications occur only after a molecule or a compound binds to them. A molecule that binds to a receptor is called ligand, and the receptors are very specific at what can be bound to them and only certain compounds will bind to each type of receptor. It's like a lock and a key: only certain keys open specific doors and when the door is open, there is a passage. In the case of receptors, this is a passage for a directional signal. A single cell can have various types of receptors attached to it that have the purpose of communicating with various compounds.
Cannabinoids affect our body because it contains the receptors, made to bind to specific cannabinoid molecules. The human brain contains more cannabinoid receptors than any other G protein-coupled receptor! Our cells that contain so many receptors that specifically bind to THC and the fact that our body produces its form of "natural THC" (anandamide), although in very low concentrations, makes sense in explaining why human beings are so attracted to this plant. There is nothing unnatural in the way our body uses cannabinoids and marijuana is proving very effective as a natural remedy and should be available to patients who need it.
So far there are only two cannabinoid receptors known in our body that bind to THC: the CB1 receptors that are found in the brain and in the central nervous system and the CB2 receptors that are found throughout the body, especially in the immune system. Apart from the cannabinoids that are found in cannabis (which are naturally the most powerful) and those that naturally produce our body, there are many other substances that act slightly on our internal endocannabinoid system, such as: Echinacea, turmeric, black pepper, cocoa, etc. It has been discovered that these and other substances bind to the same cannabinoid receptors.
Cannabidiol or CBD, however, does not have much binding affinity with either of the two known cannabinoid receptors. Instead, it has a suppressive effect on the enzyme FAAH ('Fatty Acid Amide Hydroxylase '), which is responsible for the splitting and destruction of anandamide. This suppressive reaction with CBD means that it will remain more anandamide in the system and for longer. Anandamide promotes the CB1 receptor, such as THC, thus leaving less chance for THC action to be bound with these receptors and, it turn, less effect.
While CBD is not interested in binding with CB1 or CB2, it has been shown to interact with other receptors to activate its medicinal effects. There are a couple of receptors coupled to the G proteins that are found in the central and peripheral nervous system that interact with the CBD. Then there is the TRPV-1 (technical abbreviation of 'Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V') that reacts to this. The TRPV-1 receptor that is also activated by capsaicin, the 'spicy' compound found in chili, is known to average the perception of pain, inflammation and body temperature, as you may have probably heard eating a very spicy hot pepper .
An important function in the field of anxiety in our body is coated by the family of 5-HT receptors, activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. These receptors trigger reactions via chemical messages that excite or inhibit depending on the chemical context of the bond. The 5-HT1A serotonin receptor is part of the CBD receptor family and when activated, exerts the strong antidepressant effects of cannabinoids, which then leads to other CBD medicinal functions, because this receptor also acts in a wide range of processes such as anxiety, addiction, appetite, sleep, pain perception, nausea, vomit, etc. It does so by activating an inhibitory response, slowing its signals, compared to other drugs such as LSD, mushrooms and hallucinogens that activate a different 5-HT receptor that produces an excitation response.
CBD produces part of the anxiolytic effects by activating receptors called adenosine receptors. These regulate cardiovascular functions, oxygen consumption of the myocardium and blood flow of the coronary arteries, relieving many symptoms of anxiety, tension, stiffness of the chest, shortness of breath, etc. These receptors significantly regulate other neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and glutamate. Dopamine is not only responsible for the positive feelings that can affect sleep, mood, memory, attention and voluntary movements. Other drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine also work to amplify the effects of dopamine receptors, but on a larger scale. While THC temporarily enhances dopamine levels, CBD does not and in studies in mice and rats, it has been found that its sporadic effect is that of an inhibitor. More studies will be needed to understand the reason behind this and how it happens, randomly. It probably has something to do with one of the other 83 cannabinoids we know so little about.
Both CBD and THC have shown, if taken singly, to work against tumours, but they also have synergies when used together. We need more in-depth clinical trials to identify exactly the functions they have when they act together in the form of cannabis. Unfortunately, given that the cultivation and consumption of cannabis are still limited or prohibited in most countries in the world, funding and necessary resources from governments and agencies to conduct this type of research are lacking. While some universities and schools have conducted studies all over the world that lead to clear evidence on how there is a cannabis / tumors relationship, these conclusions are not conclusive. This possible binding involves another receptor coupled to G proteins, called GPR55, sometimes described as the orphan receptor because it has not been scientifically inserted into a family of receptors, although many researchers believe it is a third cannabinoid receptor. The GPR55 receptor is mainly found in the brain, concentrated around and inside the cerebellum and is used to regulate bone density and blood pressure. An example: when you have a hyperactive GPR55 receptor, the signals increase, and this can be linked to osteoporosis. The receptor promotes the activity of the osteoclast cell and the osteoclast is responsible for bone resorption, a process in which bone calcium is cleaved and transferred from the bones to the blood, making it weaker. When activated, this receptor also contributes to the rapid growth (proliferation) of cancer cells and is linked to many types of cancer. In some studies, CBD has been shown to block GPR55 signals, reducing tumour cell proliferation and bone resorption and exerting anticancer effects.
Most of the illegal cannabis tests are tests that detect THC and in most countries the CBD is totally LEGAL and can be purchased in many forms. Unfortunately, it does not have the same effects that it would have in cannabis, combined, but it can do wonders from the medical point of view even on its own. Some university studies have shown that it has incredible effects on mice, reducing the inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis by 50% and also reducing necrosis by 65% if taken immediately after a heart attack.